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Red Blood Cells

Explanation of red blood cells starting from the meaning, function, characteristics, structure, pictures, and the impact of the deficiency and excess of the cells. Erythrocytes are the most abundant in the body whose function is to transport oxygen and other substances. Another name for red blood cells is erythrocytes, which comes from the Greek words Erythos which means red and kytos which means blood cell envelope. These cells have a flat shape where the center is concave or biconcave and has no nucleus.

In the following, we will explain in more detail what erythrocytes are, their function, structure, characteristics, and various other discussions.

Definition of Red Blood Cells

The main function of these cells is to transport oxygen to the body’s tissues through the blood. In erythrocytes there is hemoglobin which is a biomolecule and functions to bind oxygen. Later hemoglobin or Hb will take oxygen from the lungs.

After that, oxygen is released at the time of the erythrocytes through the capillaries. The red color of erythrocytes comes from hemoglobin which is the constituent element in the form of iron. Erythrocytes are the main component of blood cells. The number of erythrocytes in the male body is approximately 5 million. Meanwhile, the number of erythrocytes in women ranges from 4 million.

Red Blood Cell Function

Some of the functions of erythrocytes are as follows:

1. Determining Blood Type

Maybe you’ve often heard of blood types A, B, AB, and O. But do you know where the determination of the blood group came from? Determination of blood group found the presence or absence of agglutinogen antigens in erythrocytes.

2. Sending Oxygen throughout the Body

We discussed earlier that the main function of erythrocytes is to send oxygen throughout the body. But before that, red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow and then will spread to the body’s tissues carrying oxygen from the lungs. Furthermore, erythrocytes will circulate it back to the lungs to be removed.

3. Antibodies

The third function of erythrocytes is as immunity or antibodies. A person’s immune system is influenced by hemoglobin which acts to ward off bacteria or pathogens through a process called lysis. Hemoglobin will release free radicals that have the potential to destroy the membranes and cell walls of pathogens and kill bacteria.

4. Dilation of Blood Vessels

The dilation of blood vessels is caused by the presence of red blood cells. Erythrocytes will release a compound called S-Nithrosothiol. This compound will be released when there is a deoxygenation process in hemoglobin. This condition has an impact on the dilation of blood vessels and blood circulation throughout the body, especially in areas experiencing a lack of blood.

Characteristics of Red Blood Cells

Based on the explanation above, we can conclude that the characteristics of erythrocytes are:

  • Has a red color that comes from hemoglobin
  • Erythrocytes do not have a nucleus
  • The shape of the erythrocytes is round , flat and the center is biconcave or concave
  • Erythrocytes have a lifespan of less than 120 days
  • The number of erythrocytes ranges from 4 to 5 million cells/mm³ of blood
  • Erythrocytes are elastic
  • The diameter of erythrocytes ranges from 7 to 8 m and has a thickness of 1 to 2 m

Red Blood Cell Structure

As you know that erythrocytes are the main part of blood cells. Each millimeter of blood has about 5 billion erythrocytes which is then calculated as 5 million per cubic millimeter or m. The structure of erythrocytes is much simpler when compared to most cells in the human body.

In essence, erythrocytes are membranes that enclose a solution of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein that makes up at least 95% of the essential protein of erythrocytes and does not have cell organs such as the Golgi apparatus or lysosomes, mitochondria.

Red Blood Cell Disease

There are several diseases caused by excess and deficiency of erythrocytes. Some of these diseases will be described below.

1. Diseases Due to Excess Red Blood Cells

  • Blood clotting

If a person has an excess of erythrocytes, then he has the potential to develop blood clots. If the number of erythrocytes produced exceeds the limit, the blood flow will be more crowded and over time it will be full. This condition is certainly not very good for the heart and brain.

  • Organ Damage

The second erythrocyte deficiency disease is organ damage. The performance of the spleen to filter the presence of excess erythrocytes will cause swelling in a short time. If this condition continues, then the spleen has the potential to be damaged. Another organ that has the potential to be damaged is the kidneys. Even the eyes have the potential to be damaged due to the excessive number of erythrocytes.

2. Diseases Due to Lack of Red Blood Cells

  • Anemia

Maybe you often know the name of this disease. Anemia is also known as anemia. Anemia is a condition where the intake of basic vitamins that make up erythrocytes such as vitamin B12, iron, and folate is reduced. Lack of these three nutrients has an impact on the spinal cord, which acts as a blood factory, can no longer supply red blood cells according to the body’s needs.

  • Kidney illness

Not only excess, it turns out that the lack of erythrocytes also has an impact on the kidneys. A person who has a deficiency of erythrocytes has the potential to suffer from kidney disease. The kidneys require an adequate supply of erythrocytes. When the supply of red blood cells is reduced, the kidneys are not able to carry out their functions optimally. In addition, several other diseases such as HIV, AIDS, and cancer are also caused by a lack of erythrocytes.

Red Blood Cell Enhancement Foods

To treat diseases caused by lack of erythrocytes. Actually there are many foods that are useful to increase erythrocytes in the body. Some of these erythrocyte-boosting foods include:

  • Meat:  Meat is a hemoglobin-boosting food. Almost all types of meat are found to be useful in increasing the number of red blood cells in the body, such as mutton, beef, chicken, duck, and others
  • Sweet Potatoes:  Sweet potatoes are foods that are able to overcome anemia naturally. Sweet potatoes are useful for activating erythrocytes and adding oxygen to the blood
  • Banana:  Banana is a fruit that contains a lot of iron and nutrients. Some nutritional content such as vitamins, potassium, and minerals are very important for the body. The content contained in bananas is also useful for increasing the production of erythrocytes.
  • Spinach:  Spinach is also a vegetable that is useful in increasing the number of erythrocytes in the body. Spinach contains vegetable protein, fiber, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin E. All of these ingredients play an important role in forming hemoglobin.
  • Cassava Leaves: Cassava leaves are a familiar food ingredient. I wonder cassava leaves have many benefits for the body. One of them is increasing the production of erythrocytes. Some of the substances contained in cassava leaves include: iron, phosphorus, vitamin B1, vitamin C, fat, and protein.

That’s the complete information, hopefully it can be useful and useful in doing your assignment.