A complete explanation of spermatogenesis starting from the understanding, process, stages, schematics, diagrams, and the correct sequence in full. This time we will explain information related to spermatogenesis. Humans are included in the category of mammals, namely giving birth and breastfeeding their children. Both animals and humans both marry to produce offspring. Good and bad the results of the offspring depend on what the process in it is like whether it is perfect or not.
Sperm are cells that are in the male or male body. When sperm enters the body of the opposite sex, a process will occur which will eventually become the next offspring. With regard to sperm, below we will provide an explanation of spermatogenesis.
Definition of Spermatogenesis
What is meant by spermatogenesis? Spermatogenesis is the process of making sperm cells and immature germ cells which we call spermatogium so that later they can become mature sperm called spermatozoa.
Spermatozoa are adult male gametes derived from organisms that perform manual reproduction. The process of spermatogenesis is in the semifinous tubules of the testis which goes through a series of stages and is followed by maturation in the epididymis. When they are in the epididymis they are ready to become semen.
The process can start when a person is in puberty caused by the actions of the hypothalamus, Leydig cells, and also the pituitary gland. This process will take place continuously and will end when the human or animal dies. However, the number of sperm produced will continue to decrease with age.
What is the function of spermatogenesis? Its function is to produce adult male gametes which will effectively fertilize female gametes. This process will form a one-celled organism called a zygote which will then divide and form a fetus.
In order to obtain good and healthy offspring, it is necessary to have a fixed number of chromosomes because if it fails it can cause abnormalities. Therefore, spermatogenesis plays a role in preventing the occurrence of these abnormalities.
The process or stages of spermatogenesis is actually divided into three, namely:
A stage of spermatogenesis in which spermatogenesis that has undergone mitosis many times will become primary spermatocytes. Spermatogenesis is a primitive structure that can reproduce by mitosis. Spermatogenia obtain nutrients from Sertoli cells and then develop into primary spermatocytes.
The spermatocytes that have diploit properties, namely 2n or contain 23 paired chromosomes will gather in the germinal epithelial membrane called type A spermatogenesis. After that, A spermatogenia will divide by mitosis to become type B spermatogenia.
After going through the process of dividing several times, these cells then become primary spermatocytes and are still diploid. Primary spermatocytes have diploid or 2n chromosomes present in the nucleus of the cell and undergo meiosis. One spermatocyte can produce two daughter cells, namely secondary spermatocytes.
2. Meiosis Stage
The schema of spermatogenesis in the meiotic stage begins when the primary spermatocytes move away from the basal lamina. The amount of cytoplasm will be more and more which will then undergo meiosis 1 and produce secondary spermatocytes with n chromosomes or haploid. Secondary spermatocytes will still divide again by meiosis 2 to form 4 haploid spermatids.
Meanwhile, cytokinesis in meiosis I and II did not divide germ cells separately. However, they are still connected via a bridge called an intercellular bridge . When compared to spermatocytes I, spermatocytes II have a dark nucleus.
3. Spermatogenesis Stage
At this stage or sequence of spermatogenesis there is a transformation between spermatids into spermatozoids in which there are 4 phases, namely the Golgi phase, the cap phase, the acrosome phase, and the maturation phase. The result is 4 spermatozoa or mature sperm.
When spermatids are first formed, the shape of the cells in spermatids is not much different from that of epithelial cells. But when it starts to elongate it will turn into a sperm which then looks like a head and tail.
By the time spermatogenesis is complete, ABP or Androgen Binding Protein testosterone is no longer needed. Then the Sartoli cells produce the hormone inhibin so that it can provide feedback to the pituitary so that it can stop the secretion of LH and FSH.
Spermatozoa will come out of the urethra along with the fluid produced by the seminal vesicles, Cowper’s glands, and prostate glands. Spermatozoa and together with these fluids will be known as semen or semen. When ejaculated, the number of spermatozoa cells produced by men ranges from 300 to 400 million.
Difference Between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
Below are the differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis that you need to know.
|Definition||The process of sperm formation in the male reproductive system. The method is by mitosis and meiosis||The process of ovum formation that occurs in the female reproductive system. The method is by mitosis and meiosis|
|The place||Occurs in the seminiferous tubules in the testes||Occurs in the ovarian follicle|
|Destination||Sperm formation||Ovum formation|
|Process||Happens continuously from puberty to death||Does not occur continuously but has a period of rest with a fairly long period of time. Time to start menstruation until menopause|
|Polar body||There isn’t any||There are two polar bodies|
|Maturation place||Everything happens in the testicles||In stage 1, division occurs in the ovary and in stage 2 the division occurs outside the ovary|
|Results||4 functional sperm cells (fertile/fertile)||1 ovum cell and 3 smooth cells or polar bodies|
|Functional cell count||4 cells||1 cell|
|division||Mitosis is symmetrical||Mitosis occurs asymmetrically|
Factors Affecting Spermatogenesis
Then what are the factors that influence spermatogenesis so that it causes a person to experience infertility? Here’s the answer.
- An increase in the temperature of the testicles caused by a prolonged fever or it could be due to excessive heat can affect sperm count. This condition also causes an increase in the number of abnormal sperm present in the semen. The most efficient sperm formation is at a temperature of 33.5º or lower than body temperature. The testes are able to survive this temperature because they are in the scrotum or scrotum which is located outside the body cavity.
- The use of drugs or marijuana also causes decreased sperm production. Some of these drugs include: nitrofurantoin, cimetidine, and spironolactone
- The third factor is because someone has a very serious disease in the testicles, blockage, or the absence of the vas deferens both on the left and right. This condition even results in azospermia or no sperm at all
- Varicocele is an anatomical abnormality that is often found in cases of male infertility. This disorder can cause blockage of blood flow from the testes and hinder the rate of sperm formation
Thus the information we can convey about spermatogenesis. You should also know that spermatogenesis occurs around 2 months. In addition, more than 300 million spermatogenesis will be produced each day but about 100 million will eventually mature.