A complete explanation of white blood cells starting from the meaning, function, types, characteristics, effects of advantages and disadvantages, and how to reduce them. White blood cells are indeed very good, this is because they can play an important role in blood clotting that flows when our skin has blisters and maintains immunity.
Definition of White Blood Cells
White blood cells are part of the immune system whose job is to protect themselves from disease and infection. White blood cells are also called leukocytes where these leukocytes are produced from the five hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. Leukocytes have 5 kinds, each of which has a different function. The five types are monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils.
Functions of White Blood Cells
Then what is the function of white blood cells? Leukocytes do have a very important role for immunity. The function of leukocytes is to fight foreign molecules and microorganisms that cause infections or diseases such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or parasites. Not only that, another function of leukocytes is to protect the body against foreign agents that have the potential to be a threat.
In other words, leukocytes function to maintain the body’s condition against the entry of foreign objects that have the potential to harm the body. These cells are more specialized which can be seen through their origin which is not much different from HR, namely root cells or stem cells that will continue to divide in the spinal cord. The normal leukocyte count has a fairly wide range, which is between 5.10³ to 10 4 / mL.
Meanwhile, the number of leukocytes inside is not as much as HR. The number ranges from 0.1 to 0.2% of the total human resources. White blood cells are also not always needed by the body because they appear only when there is conflict with foreign objects. Leukocytes will work by blocking the foreign body. If the number of foreign bodies is large enough and their handling takes a long time, some of the leukocytes will divide by mitosis outside the bone marrow tissue.
Types and Characteristics of White Blood Cells
After knowing the meaning of white blood cells and their functions, now you also have to know what the types and characteristics of white blood cells are from each type.
The first type of white blood cell is the bisophile. Bisophil is a type of leukocyte that has an important role in the immune system. Bisophils play a role in producing an inflammatory reaction that will fight infection. In addition, bisophils also have an important role in causing allergic reactions.
The number of bisophils is approximately 1%. Bisophil will increase non-specific immune response to pathogens. These cells are also among the most famous for being able to cause asthma. When there are stimuli that trigger asthma such as dust, bisophils will release histamine. This then causes bronchoconstriction and inflammation in the respiratory tract.
The number of eosinophils is more than bisophiles, which is about 7%. These cells will also increase when things happen related to asthma, hay fever, or allergies. Eosiphonyl diameters are known to range from 10 to 12 micrometers.
Eosiphonil cells also belong to a group of granulocytes that function to kill parasites within 8 to 12 days. These cells have several chemical substances such as histamine lipase, ribonuclease, and others. The function of eosifonil is to prevent allergies, destroy large parasites, destroy pathogenic antibodies, and function to respond to allergies.
You need to know that half of the number of leukocytes in the body are neutrophils. These cells are the first cells to directly respond and attack viruses and bacteria. As the main barrier, neutrophils will send signals to other cells to also respond to the virus or bacteria.
Generally, neutrophils are found in pus that comes out or comes from wounds in the body. These cells will come out after being released from the bone marrow. Then it will last in the body for about 8 hours. The body will produce approximately 100 billion neutrophils every day.
Lymphocytes are also part of leukocytes which have a very important role in maintaining immunity. These cells have the second largest number of cells after neutrophils. These cells are formed in the spleen and bone marrow. There are two types of lymphocytes, namely large lymphocytes and small lymphocytes.
Lymphocytes produce at least 8000 or about 1 cubic in leukocytes. If there is an increase in lymphocyte cells, it can lead to leukemia or blood cancer. Lymphocytes are also divided into 5, namely helper T cells, B lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells, superesor T cells, and memory T cells.
The last type of leukocyte is monocyte. It can be said that these cells act like garbage trucks that make up about 5% of the total number of leukocytes. The function of the garbage truck in monocytes is to move from body tissue to other body tissues while cleaning up dead cells.
The resistance that monocytes do is to eat their opponents even though they are larger than the monocytes themselves. Monocytes also function to destroy foreign cells, kill cancer cells, remove dead tissue, clean phagocytosis from neutrophils, and so on.
Diseases of excess and deficiency of white blood cells
1. Excess Leukocytes
A person who has an excess of white blood cells is at risk of suffering from the following diseases:
- If monocytes increase, it can result in a person suffering from chronic white blood cell infections, cancer, autoimmune disorders, and several other medical diseases.
- Elevated lymphocytes can result in a person suffering from a condition called lymphocytic leukocytosis. This condition occurs due to infection or viruses such as tuberculosis
- Increased neutrophils can cause a person to experience neutrophilic leukocytosis. This condition stems from a normal immune response to several problems such as injury, infection, some drugs, inflammation, or certain types of leukemia
- If white blood cells are high in the bisophil section, it can cause a person to have the potential to experience hypothyroidism, especially for people with a history of underactive thyroid disease
- An increase in eosinophils can cause the body to react to allergens, parasitic infections or asthma
2. Lack of Leukocytes
Meanwhile, if a person experiences a lack of white blood cells, it can result in:
- Actually the problem due to lack of neutrophils occurs slowly and suddenly. This problem has no special symptoms and is only detected when a blood test is performed
- Lack of basophils results in severe allergic reactions and skin infections
- Meanwhile, a less severe lymphocyte deficiency usually results in mild flu symptoms. For more severe problems can cause other infections
- Leukopenia, a disease due to low white blood cell count, which is usually caused by severe infections and drug side effects
How to Lower White Blood Cells
Actually to reduce leukocytes depends on the disease and the factors that cause an increase in leukocytes. However, there are several medical methods that you can do, including:
- Enough rest
- Take therapy to relieve anxiety and stress if necessary
- Relieves inflammation if this condition causes your white blood cells to rise
- Take antibiotics if the increase in leukocytes occurs due to a bacterial infection
- Take an antihistamine if the increase in white blood cells is due to an allergic reaction
- Chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, radiation therapy for leukemia sufferers
- Changing medicines when the previous medicine did not give positive results or even caused a negative impact
So it is better to balance between red blood cells and white blood cells so that you can live a normal and very healthy life. Because various things that have an excess impact will not feel good if you can’t anticipate them.